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职称英语真题《理工C》阅读理解真题精选(3)

发布时间:2017-02-05        来源:华商教育
导读:

  Soot (煤烟灰) Snow: a Hot Combination

  New research from NASA scientists suggests emissions of black soot alter the way sunlight reflects off snow. Accding to a computer simulation, black soot may be responsible f 25 percent of observed global warming over the past century.

  Soot in the higher latitudes (纬度) of the Earth, ice is me common, absbs me of the sun's energy warmth than an icy, white background. Dark-coled black carbon, soot,absbs sunlight, while lighter coled ice reflects sunlight.

  Soot in areas with snow ice may play an imptant role in climate change. Also, if snow ice covered areas begin melting, the warming effect increases, as the soot becomes me concentrated on the snow surface. "This provides a positive feedback, as glaciers ice sheets melt, they tend to get even dirtier," said Dr. James Hansen, a researcher at NASA's Goddard Institute f Space Studies, New Yk.

  Hansen found soot's effect on snow albedo (反照率), which may be contributing to trends toward early springs in the Nthern Hemisphere, such as thinning Arctic sea ice melting glaciers permafi:ost. Soot also is believed to play a role in changes in the atmosphere above the oceans l.

  "Black carbon reduces the amount of energy reflected by snow back into space, thus heating the snow surface me than if there were no black carbon," Hansen said. Soot's increased absption of solar energy is especially effective in warming the wld's climate. "This fcing is unusually effective, causing twice as much global warming as a carbon-dioxide fcing of the same magnitude," Hansen noted.

  Hansen cautioned, although the role of soot in altering global climate is substantial, it does not alter the fact that greenhouse gases are the primary cause of climate warming during the past century. Such gases are expected to be the largest climate fcing f the rest of the century.

  The researchers found that observed warming in the Nthern Hemisphere was large in the winter spring at dle high latitudes. These observations were coherent with the researchers' climate model situations, which showed some of the largest warming effects occurred when there were heavy snow cover sufficient sunlight.

  36. Which of the following statements of soot is NOT true?

  A. It absbs sun's heat.

  B. It is responsible f climate change.

  C. It reflects sunlight.

  D. It may account f a quarter of global warming over the past century.

  37. Which of the following areas shows a greater warming effect?

  A. Ice sea areas.

  B. Areas with black carbon.

  C. Areas covered with white snow.

  D. Melting glaciers.

  38. "This fcing" in Paragraph 5 refers to __________.

  A. sun's heating on snow surface

  B. soot's increased absption of solar energy

  C. carbon-dioxide's warming effect

  D. snow's increased reflection of sunlight

  39. What is the main cause of climate warming during the past century?

  A. Soot.

  B. Snow.

  C. Greenhouse gases.

  D. Wind.

  40. The largest warming effects happened in the Nthern Hemisphere with __________.

  A. thinning sea ice insufficient sunlight

  B. light snow cover sufficient sunlight

  C. heavy snow cover sufficient sunlight

  D. thick sea ice insufficient sunlight

  答案与解析

  36.C。细节题。题干:下列关于soot的说法不正确的是哪项?利用题干关键词soot无法定位到相关信息,可以改为定位选项。分别定位四个选项,利用选项A的关键词可以定位到第二段的首句,可知地球高纬地区冰雪覆盖,那里的煤灰比白色的冰面吸收了更多的太阳热能,所以选项A与原文信息一致;利用选项B的关键词可以定位到第三段首句,可知冰雪地区的煤灰对气候变化可能起着至关重要的作用,所以选项B与原文信息一致;利用选项C的关键词可以定位到第一段的首句,可知美国国家航空航天局的科学家的一项新调查显示,黑色煤烟的排放改变了冰雪对阳光的反射方式,而不是反射太阳光,所以选项C与原文信息不一致;利用选项D的关键词可以定位到第一段的最后一句,可知上世纪观测到的全球变暖有25%是黑煤灰引起的,所以D项与原文信息一致。因此,该题答案为C(黑色煤烟能反射阳光)。

  37.B。细节题。题干:下列哪个区域表现出较大的温室效应?利用题干关键词warming effect可以定位到第三段的前两句,可知冰雪地区的煤灰对气候变化可能起着至关重要的作用。而且一旦覆盖大地的冰雪开始融化,煤灰就会更加固着于冰面,从而加剧温室效应,所以可知覆盖了煤灰的雪所产生的温室效应比较大,根据第二段的最后一句可知深黑色的碳就是煤灰,因此该题选B项(覆盖了黑色的碳的地区)。

  38.B。词汇题。题干:第五段中的“This fcing”指的是__________。利用题干关键词“This fcing”可以定位到第五段。代词的含义一般在其前的句子中。前一句提到煤灰对太阳热能的大量吸收是全球气候变暖的重要因素,然后说这种强力是非常有效的,温室作用是同量二氧化碳强度的两倍,这种强力指的是煤灰对太阳热能的吸收,故本题答案为B(煤灰逐渐的吸收太阳热能)。

  39.C。细节题。题干:上个世纪气候变暖的主要原因是什么?利用题干关键词climate warming和the past century可以定位到倒数第二段的第一句,可知Hansen又提醒说尽管煤灰对全球气候变化的作用重大,但这并不能改变一个事实,那就是温室气体是上世纪气候变暖的首要原因,所以该题答案为C(温室气体)。

  40.c。细节题。题干:最大的温室效应发生在北半球__________。利用题干关键词the largest warming effects和Nthern Hemisphere可以定位到最后一段,可知研究人员发现北半球观测到的变暖现象大多发生在中高纬地区的冬春两季,这样的观测结果与气象模拟实验相吻合,表明部分大规模的温室效应发生在有厚雪覆盖层和充足的日照的时期。因此,该题答案为选项C(厚雪覆盖层和充足的日照)。


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